HTML from SGML to HTML 5.0
We are living in the age of internet where everyone can connect to others in a matter of seconds. We are equipped with high end gadgets like laptop, tablet and smartphones. They help us in performing our many tasks in just a click of a button. These tools have made our lifestyle fast and we can perform numerous roles in a limited number of time. Now, one of the basic tools for making a page or website in the internet is HTML. This program has come a long way and developed accordingly over the years since its inception in 1991, when it was known as SGML. Here we will discuss the evolutionary steps that were taken to develop HTML 5 from its original avatar SGML over the span of 22 years.
So, here is the chart of development of the web design program.
SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)
The HTML markup invented by Berners-Lee had a significant grounding in SGML (Standard Generalized Mark-Up), that was an internationally agreed upon method for marking text up into structural units (paragraphs, headings, lists, etc.) in the year 1991. The primary idea of using a markup was that the language was independent of the formatter. SGML made use of pair tags such as the opening and closing tags:. Other elements of SGML that he used were the paragraph, heading, and both ordered and unordered lists amongst others. It did not include hypertext links with anchor elements which were purely Berners-Lee’s invention along with the www.sitename.name syntax for addressing sites on the Internet.
HTML 2.0 (Hyper Text Markup Language)
The next version of HTML was available form 1994. It included features with all the browsers available in the time like Cello, Arena, Lynx, tkWWW and Mosaic. HTML 2.0 set a benchmark for web standards for the future. Over the years, new competing Internet-Draft, “HTML+ (Hypertext Markup Format)”, from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms.
After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed “HTML 2.0”, the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based.
HTML 3.2 was published through the W3C to provide standards for different web browsers. It was the first version developed and standardized exclusively by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group in September 1996.Initially code-named Wilbur, HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas entirely, reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions and adopted most of Netscape’s visual markup tags. Netscape’s blink element and Microsoft’s marquee element were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies. A markup for mathematical formulas similar to that in HTML was not standardized until 14 months later in MathML.
HTML 4.0 HTML with XML and AJAX
Cougar is the code name used for HTML 4.0, published as a recommendation in 1997 and finally approved some to time later. The version saw the introduction of a new tool to ease out the design process of web in the form of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).
HTML 4.0 adopted many browser-specific element types and attributes, but at the same time sought to phase out Netscape’s visual markup features by marking them as deprecated in favor of style sheets. HTML 4 is an SGML application conforming to ISO 8879 norms.
HTML with XML and AJAX
HTML add with XML to become XHTML, picking up the rigid code structure of XML to enforce cleaner code but had some problems handling backward compatibility. Though XML is considered a standard, still browsers forgive this and allow sloppy code, uppercase code and improper closed tags. This makes rendering difficult to attain wide adoption of stricker XML code.
AJAX which originates in an iframe technique of internet explorer was formally launched in 2005. This development made web pages to quickly react and update dynamic page content for desktop applications as seen in Rackspace Email and Gmail, as well as social media sites like Digg, Facebook and Twitter. These were further made compatible to online Content Management Systems (CMS) like WordPress and Joomla.
XHTML 5 was an update to XHTML 1.x and defined alongside HTML5 in the HTML5 draft. To provide rich web applications, the Web Hypertext Application Technology (WHAT) Work Group forms in 2004 with members of Apple, Mozilla and Opera published the first HTML 5 draft in the year 2008. HTML 5 experienced instant popularity as advanced web browsers like Firefox and Internet Explorer supported its features. It was made in an attempt to define a single markup language that can be written in either HTML or XHTML syntax. It includes detailed processing models to encourage more interoperable implementations; it extends, improves and rationalizes the markup available for documents, and introduces markup and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for complex web applications. For same purpose, HTML5 is also a potential candidate for cross-platform mobile applications. Many features of HTML5 have been built with the consideration of being able to run on low-powered devices such as smartphones and tablets.
After having learned about the history of HTML which explained how the internet evolved over the years from helping communications between the army to connecting the entire globe as a single unit. You may be thinking how to learn about the tools oh HTML. To make a simple website using basic HTML language, you need to learn HTML basics first. HTML is considered as the best and easiest way for web development.
So, we can help you learn the language and help you design your own website. To know about how you can learn the language, join our Diploma in Web Design course.
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